Writing Footnotes in Research Papers

Generally speaking, there are two different types of ways to cite materials in any piece of academic research writing. Citing materials can be done through either (a) in-text citations, or (b) footnotes or endnotes.

The only difference between a footnote and an endnote is location. Footnotes, as the name suggest, appear at the “foot” of the page, i.e., at the bottom of the page. Endnotes, on the other hand, and also like the name suggests, come at the “end” of the document, whether it is a research paper, a chapter, an article, a book, or a chapter in a book. Preference for one over the other is generally up to the publisher and/or the journal, so note so be sure to check their publication requirements so you’re aware of which format is preferred, or even if it is an option.1 Continue reading

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How to Cite White Papers by a Professional Editor

Very briefly, a “white paper” is a government document, though the term has been refigured to include several types of marketing documents as of late. Originally, governments in the UK and the US used the phrase “white paper” to explanations of government policies and regulations. As of late, however, white papers also refer to explanations and descriptions of products offered by various companies and corporations, as they describe and explain new products, offering readers information about new products, what they offer, and how to provide sales on such new products for companies interested in selling the new product. In many instances, white papers that take a marketing twist on the original definition refer to software products that could be extremely valuable to many kinds of companies.

Please, however, do not misunderstand what a white paper is. Commonly, a white paper is a deeply researched and explicitly targeted report that attempts to explain a product (in the case of a white paper that is generated from a business) or a policy (especially from white papers that explain government policies). Continue reading

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Citing Websites in Research

It goes without saying that today’s researcher is one that starts—and many times, finishes—research on the web. Unless the researcher is someone who loves digging into the archives of a high school, historical society, or some other old, dusty basement with a lot of documents and books (I’m guilty of that), or the researcher is one who gathers information his or herself (which is much more common that one would expect), gathering research involves using the internet to locate, survey, select, and use secondary information.

Now, using the internet to find secondary sources is to be expected. But citing internet-based resources, and especially website citations, is much trickier. In short, there’s a distinction to understand about research that is found on the web, and research that comes from the web. Obviously, there’s a lot of valid, interesting, and worthwhile information that comes from the web, including scholarly articles, online periodicals and news sources, government pages with oodles and oodles of information, the list is enormous. Continue reading

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Publishing Your Research in a Peer-Reviewed Journal

Publishing your research is an integral part of any academic’s career. While it’s certainly intimidating to think about your research, your work, your words, out there for everyone to see, here is one thing to remember:

Everyone starts somewhere.

In other words, there’s a reason peer-reviewed journals are “reviewed” by those in the field. It’s not just that reviewers are there to determine who is accepted or rejected, but reviewers are there to help. That’s right….help. Reviewers—and the peer review process—is also a process of writing and revision. Submitting and getting your work published in a peer-reviewed journal is a process of learning how to write in the field and toward a specific audience; getting your work to reviewers will only help you understand more about how to do this. There are, though, some things to keep in mind. Continue reading

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A Grammarian Walks Into a Bar…

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